Download Alternative Energy Sources by Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides (auth.) PDF

By Efstathios E. (Stathis) Michaelides (auth.)

Alternative strength resources is designed to provide the reader, a transparent view of the function every one kind of substitute strength might play in providing the power wishes of the human society within the close to destiny (20-50 years).

The first chapters on "energy call for and provide" and "environmental effects," set the tone as to why replacement power is vital for the longer term. The 3rd bankruptcy supplies the legislation of power conversion tactics, in addition to the restrictions of changing one strength shape to a different. The part on exergy provides a quantitative history at the capability/potential of every strength resource to provide strength. The fourth, 5th and 6th chapters are expositions of fission and fusion nuclear strength, the ability crops which could produce energy from those assets and the problems that may body the general public debate on nuclear strength. the subsequent 5 chapters comprise descriptions of the most typical renewable power resources (wind, sunlight, geothermal, biomass, hydroelectric) many of the much less universal resources (e.g. tidal and wave energy). The emphasis of those chapters can be at the international strength of every resource, the engineering/technical structures which are utilized in harnessing the possibility of every one resource, the technological advancements that may give a contribution to wider usage of the resources and environmental results linked to their wider use. The final 3 chapters are: "energy storage," to be able to develop into a huge factor if renewable strength resources are used widely.

The fourteen chapters within the booklet were selected in order that one may match a semester college path round this e-book. on the finish of each bankruptcy, there are 10-20 difficulties and 1-3 feedback of semester tasks which may be assigned to scholars for extra learn.

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The figure also depicts a Hubbert curve that best fits the scenario of gas production and consumption. It is observed that in the early stages of the development of this energy resource, the production followed rather faithfully the shape of the Hubbert curve. 3 Reserves, Resources and Future Demand for Energy 29 Fig. 10 The Hubbert curve life cycle of an energy resource (bell-shaped curve) and the production of natural gas in the USA shape. The actual natural gas consumption in the USA decreased temporarily and then increased again, fueled by new domestic discoveries, such as the Barnett field in Texas, and the significant increase of new family house construction between 1995 and 2008.

The equilibrium price, P, 18 1 Energy Demand and Supply Fig. 7 Typical demand and supply curves of a commodity such as petroleum is also shown at the intersection of the demand and supply curves, which are represented by the solid curves. 7 Other suppliers or other methods may enter the market to supply the demand, but the supply curve shifts to the left as denoted by the dashed line in Fig. 7. A new equilibrium is reached with a higher price, PH. It must be noted that, because of the higher price, the quantity demanded and produced has slightly decreased at this equilibrium state.

Even though the relative use of solar, wind and geothermal energy have increased by a factor of 7 and the energy supplied by them increased by a factor of 15, these renewable energy sources, still contribute less than 1% of the total energy supply. The world has to make significant technological progress and great strides in order to achieve a sustainable energy future that is based on renewable energy sources. 2 and Fig. 6 is that the global primary energy demand is satisfied principally by exhaustible energy sources, such as coal, oil, natural gas, and nuclear.

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