Download Alternative Energy by Brian C. Black Ph.D., Richard Flarend PDF

By Brian C. Black Ph.D., Richard Flarend

As this e-book makes transparent, civilization can't lengthy proceed to journey on an oil slick. around the globe, many of us have come to work out dependence on coal, and particularly on oil, not just as unsustainable, yet as profoundly destabilizing, either environmentally and politically. whereas ever-increasing calls for remain put on ''mainstream'' power resources, ordinary makes an attempt were made to generate strength in ''alternative'' methods.

After retracing a few of these efforts, this succinct and traditionally expert quantity explores the continued debate over substitute strength that accumulated energy within the twentieth century, displaying how that discuss mirrors higher attitudes towards power and intake. Like different volumes during this sequence, Alternative Energy is designed to supply fabric for scholar experiences and debate arguments. it really is an exceptional sourcebook for these drawn to investigating the issues and customers of different fuels.

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What is missing in this discussion, however, is how the raw energy is delivered to the consumer for use. S. S. Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Review, 2007. alternative energy 16 step in which the raw energy is modified into some other form to be used by the consumer. 8, showing the production of energy. Without the intermediate step, the raw energy is utterly useless. Just imagine driving up to the gas station and getting 10 gallons of crude oil. Your car would be ruined! Petroleum is used mostly for transportation, but it must first be refined into the appropriate intermediate products: gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and so forth.

Most renewable energies, except biomass, are also used only for electricity, although solar-thermal energy can also be used for space and water heating. In practice, the most flexible energy sources are natural gas and biomass. These are commonly used in nearly every consumer sector, for electricity, heating, transportation, and industrial uses. In theory, petroleum is also very flexible, yet due to its high cost and dependence on foreign sources, it is generally reserved only for transportation.

Water pollution is usually a localized effect, except for acid rain. Air pollution is a broad concern relating to the production of energy. Common air pollutants are sulfur dioxides (SOx), Nitrous Oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM10), volatile organic compounds (VOC), heavy metals, and carbon dioxide (CO2). Until recently, carbon dioxide was not legally considered a pollutant susceptible to EPA regulations; however, that changed in 2007, and it now has the same legal status as other pollutants, although the regulations concerning allowable emission have not yet been determined.

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