Download AI in the 1980s and Beyond: An MIT Survey by William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil PDF

By William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil

This choice of essays through 12 contributors of the MIT employees, offers an within document at the scope and expectancies of present study in a single of the world's significant AI facilities. The chapters on man made intelligence, specialist platforms, imaginative and prescient, robotics, and normal language offer either a vast evaluation of present components of task and an overview of the sphere at a time of serious public curiosity and fast technological growth. Contents: synthetic Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased structures (Randall Davis). Expert-System instruments and strategies (Peter Szolovits). clinical analysis: Evolution of platforms development services (Ramesh S. Patil). man made Intelligence and software program Engineering (Charles wealthy and Richard C. Waters). clever typical Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). automated Speech popularity and knowing (Victor W. Zue). robotic Programming and synthetic Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). robotic palms and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). clever imaginative and prescient (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). self sufficient cellular Robots (Rodney A. Brooks). W. Eric L. Grimson, writer of From photos to Surfaces: A Computational research of the Human Early imaginative and prescient process (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are either Assistant Professors within the division of electric Engineering and laptop technological know-how at MIT. AI within the Nineteen Eighties and past is integrated within the man made Intelligence sequence, edited through Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady.

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Fever is a symptom. a feature of a class, then the object belongs to the class. Infection is a disease. Fever is a symptom of infection. Patient is an object. A symptom is a feature. A disease is a class. This latest method is in fact close a general expression of what has been called abduction, the process of working backward from observable mani­ festations to their probable explanatory cause. In this view, then, expert systems provide a programming method­ ology that separates factual statements from the methods that determine how those facts will be used.

The real issue is, where on the line of collaboration ( Figure 9) are we going to draw the separation of responsibility? If the line appears nearer the "machine" end, with the human responsible for most of the problem-solving, the system will be functioning as an assistant. If the line appears more toward the middle, it becomes a collegial relationship with both contributing equally. If the line can be pushed nearer to the human end, with the machine taking on most of the task, then we have something that may truly deserve the term expert system.

Qualitative abstraction and approximation allow the designer to focus on exactly those details that are relevant during a particular stage of the design process. These abstractions support a "least commitment" paradigm, enabling the system to delay all design decisions until the latest possible time, reducing the number of commitments that get made early and then later revised. • Finally, the notion of design and debug suggests that it is at times considerably more enlightening to get the design "mostly correct" and then try it out, than to attempt to anticipate every detail.

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