Download Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton PDF
By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This ebook reports present wisdom at the dating among aerosols and precipitation attaining the Earth's floor. It features a record of strategies which can support to farther increase wisdom during this area.
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Additional info for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
As illustrated in Fig. 2 even small cumuli that produce precipitation that evaporates in the sub-cloud layer can form a cold pool. The chilled air is denser than surrounding air and spreads out beneath the cloud where it can lift the surrounding air sometimes enough to generate new cloud cells. In some cases neighboring precipitating clouds can produce cool outflows that run into each other and cause lifting of the air leading to the merger of the neighboring clouds (Fig. 3). The merged cloud cell is often wider and deeper than the parent clouds and is more likely to produce rain.
Huffman and Vali 1973; Huffman 1973a,b) could not reproduce Fletcher’s N-T empirical relationship. Measurements in a variety of field campaigns using a continuous flow diffusion chamber exhibited considerable variability in IN concentration (Rogers et al. 1998; Rogers et al. 2001; DeMott et al. 2003a, Prenni et al. 2007). The variability in ice nuclei concentration is likely not a simple function of temperature but also depends on thermodynamical, dynamical and aerosol characteristics (DeMott et al.
Enhanced ice nucleation in the presence of spuriously high supersaturations. (Hobbs and Rangno 1985). Secondary ice particle generation during evaporation of ice particles (Oraltay and Hallett 1989; Dong et al. 1994). The process that has been given the most attention and quantified in models is secondary ice particle formation by the rime-splinter process. Laboratory studies by Hallett and Mossop (1974) and Mossop and Hallett (1974), confirmed by Goldsmith et al. (1976), have indicated that copious quantities of splinters are produced during ice particle riming under very selective conditions.