Download Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes by Kenneth Pye PDF
By Kenneth Pye
It is greater than part a century because the book of R. A. Bagnold’s vintage booklet The physics of blown sand and barren region dunes, and it's a tribute to the standard of Bagnold’s paintings that a number of the primary ideas which he built - major legitimate this present day. His publication is still crucial studying for any severe s- dent of aeolian tactics. although, the previous twenty years have obvious an explosion within the scale of analysis facing aeolian shipping approaches, sediments, and landforms. a few of this paintings has been summarized in evaluate papers and edited convention court cases, yet this booklet offers the rst try and evaluation the entire eld of aeolian sand learn. unavoidably, it has no longer been attainable to hide all - pects in equivalent intensity, and the stability of integrated fabric clearly re ects the - thors’ personal pursuits to a signi cant measure. although, our target has been to supply as huge a viewpoint as attainable, and to supply an access element to an intensive mul- disciplinary scienti c literature, a few of which has now not been given the eye it merits in prior textbooks and evaluate papers. Many examples are drawn from latest released paintings, however the booklet additionally makes large use of our personal examine within the heart East, Australia, Europe, and North the United States. The publication has been written mostly to be used by means of complicated undergraduates, po- graduates, and extra senior learn employees in geomorphology and sedimentology.
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Additional info for Aeolian Sand and Sand Dunes
For this reason, desert dune fields have very low wind velocities during summer nights (Fig. 6b). The great amount of heat energy concentrated at the surface during the daytime is the driving force behind most of the summer sand storms in subtropical deserts. The hot surface air disperses the inversion and forms an unstable low-altitude mixing layer in which aeolian processes are operative (Fig. 6a) (Warren & Knott 1983). Fig. 6a,b Schematic diagram of the lapse rate over a subtropical desert during (a) summer day time and (b) summer night time.
However, the equator receives more than twice the annual solar energy at the poles. Differences in the albedo and thermal properties of particular surfaces also create large horizontal temperature differences, thus creating thermodynamic imbalances. Air motions are the unavoidable result as the atmosphere attempts to recover its thermodynamic equilibrium. 4 illustrates schematically the conversion of the potential energy into kinetic energy. A juxtaposition of contrasting thermal environments results in the development of horizontal pressure gradient forces.
35–36) Wind system Approximate kinetic energy (J) gust dust devil tornado funnel small thunderstorm large thunderstorm hurricane extratropical cyclone 106 107 1014 1015 1016 1018 1019 When the air is stable and its relative humidity is very low, as is the case in deserts, no latent heat can be released during most storms and the kinetic energy of the wind is relatively small. 2. Dust devils and tornadoes produce similar wind systems but on different scales. The former are provoked by fierce direct heating of the surface whereas the latter gather their energy from condensation and release of latent heat leading to strong convection.