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By Kenneth N. Stevens

This publication provides a idea of speech-sound iteration within the human vocal method. the excellent acoustic idea serves as one foundation for outlining different types of speech sounds used to shape differences among phrases in languages. the writer starts with a evaluate of the anatomy and body structure of speech construction, then covers resource mechanisms, the vocal tract as an acoustic filter out, correct features of auditory psychophysics and body structure, and phonological representations. within the last chapters he provides an in depth exam of vowels, consonants, and the effect of context on speech-sound construction. even if he focuses as a rule at the sounds of English, he touches in short on sounds in different languages. The publication will function a reference for speech scientists, speech pathologists, linguists drawn to phonetics and phonology, psychologists attracted to speech notion and construction, and engineers eager about speech processing purposes.

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This suggestion, which some philologists had found rather startling, pointed out that if a sound change took place it would take place in all cases. That is, it would affect all words that had the sound in question, or at least all words in which the sound occurred in a particular environment. If word-initial /t/ changed to /ts/ as the result of a sound change, as we know it did during the history of the German language, it would change to /ts/ in every single case. The fact that sound change is regular in this way explains why regular correspondences are found between related languages and dialects.

Even this schema for a diasystem, however, gives only a rough indication of lexical correspondences. It shares with Weinreich’s original system the drawback that it fails to show exactly which lexical items have a particular vowel. And it is not able to show the degree to which a modern phoneme corresponds to one historical source rather than another. The above diasystem shows that some Middle English /o /s have become /u / in Norwich and others /u /, but not which or how many. A diasystem of this type, as Moulton pointed out, also has the unfortunate consequence of giving the impression that RP and Norwich do not, at least in these partial systems, have a single phonological unit in common.

Sociolinguistics, because of the nature of its enterprise, has had to devise analytic tools and a set of hypotheses for dealing with idiolectal variability in actual speech events. In doing so, it inaugurated a science of parole, in Saussurean terms, whereas linguistics had formerly restricted itself to the science of langue. 3 The methods of dialect geography it could contribute significantly. The term ‘sociolinguistic dialectology’ is sometimes used for the intersection of the two disciplines.

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