Download A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the by Owen Chadwick PDF

By Owen Chadwick

May possibly a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick offers an research of the motives and results of the tip of the historical Papal country, and the mental pressures upon previous Rome because it got here less than assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never purely from Italy, yet from liberal hobbies in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish topics. If a united Italy used to be to be completed, the kingdom must disappear. those pressures brought on Popes to withstand "the global" instead of to attempt to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary at the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly points of Catholic religion. while they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. therefore, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority should be way more centralized in Rome.

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Additional info for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)

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Schnabel, Deutsche Geschichte im 19. Jahrhundert, rev. edn. (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1948-55), 115-16, 119. 38 Gregory XVI unintelligent aristocrat who stayed in his study rather than go out into his diocese. He listened to no advice, avoided public ceremonies, and was half inclined to the life of a solitary. He consciously chose mixed marriages as his battle-ground. He knew that Gregory XVI would back him in disobedience to the rules of the Prussian government. 19 Prussian officials tried to persuade Droste zu Vischering to conform—in vain.

They were of the middle class. Seven years after the Revolution of 1830 the French State was increasing the financial provision for the clergy, and in various areas of France where Catholicism was strong local officials encouraged the life of the Church. Government controlled the choice of bishops. But it did not try to appoint very liberal Catholics. It tried to keep out the clergy who would not accept its lawful authority, and clergy who might be democrats of any variety, or followers of Lamennais.

And the Pope had made his name, when a younger priest, as a resister of the Revolution. The encyclical denounced those who appealed that the clergy be allowed to marry. It denounced the Italian secret societies that worked to overturn the lawful governments of the Italian States. It declared divorce to be unlawful, and the marriage bond permanent. It said that the Church's censorship of books was extremely useful. The Protestant countries, and most Catholic countries once ruled by Napoleon—France, Belgium, the Rhineland, North Italy, but not Spain or southern Italy—now accepted that if a society were to be happy it must tolerate people who practised cults which were not the religion of the majority of the country.

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