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By Richard W. Unger

This identify deals a accomplished background of brewing in Holland from the beginnings of huge scale creation on the finish of the 1st millennium via medieval enlargement, the growth of the Renaissance, and the disastrous decline of the seventeenth and 18th centuries. It closes with the revival of the within the period of industrialization. significant technical ideas, from Germany, within the 14th and back within the nineteenth century, made it attainable for brewing to take a number one function within the Dutch economic system. the variation of these advancements went on regularly less than the cautious supervision of the country. counting on the huge files of city and provincial governments the writer strains the cooperation in addition to rigidity among brewers and public specialists spanning 1000 years.

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Extra resources for A History of Brewing in Holland 900-1900: Economy, Technology and the State

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By 1233 the brewers of Cambrai were paying excise taxes. In the early thirteenth century in Brabant, at least in most towns, there were excises and a designated place where those excises would be paid and in Flanders by 1280 excises were long standing and well-established taxes. Beer was one of the most popular goods to fall under such taxes and the practices in the southern Netherlands made their way north into Holland in the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Haarlem received the right to levy excise taxes for ten years from Count Floris V in 1274.

The earlier pottery kettles were not as durable. The need to have an opening near the bottom for draining off the wort created a weakness. That was not the only part of the kettle which was vulnerable and so pottery vessels were limited to capacities of 100 to 150 litres. Copper kettles probably ran to a maximum of over 1,000 litres by the late thirteenth century and possibly to 4,000 by the fifteenth. Though smaller copper kettles might be made with a hanger so they could be suspended over a fire, to take advantage of the greater size it became common to have them sit on a circular and solid brick oven.

Second, the poor quality of the soil made growing barley and oats, the raw materials of beer, less risky than raising the standard medieval bread grains, wheat and rye. Third, the rural population, faced with infertile soil and a landscape largely of water, migrated to towns and supplied a ready made 25 Doorman, De Middeleeuwse Brouwerij en de Gruit, p. 7; van Loenen, De Haarlemse Brouwindustrie voor 1600, pp. 10-11; R. van Uytven, Stadsfmancien en Stadsekonomie te Leuven van de Xlle tot het einde der XVIe Eeuw (Brussels, 1961), p.

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