Download A Dictionary of the European Union by Lee McGowan, David Phinnemore PDF

By Lee McGowan, David Phinnemore

Supplying concise definitions and causes on all points of the eu Union, this new version additionally comprises information of the 10 states which turned complete contributors of the ecu Union in might 2004. The dictionary: * includes over 1,000 entries * explains the terminology surrounding the ecu and descriptions the jobs and importance of the associations, member nations, programmes and regulations, treaties and personalities * bargains transparent and succinct definitions * spells out acronyms and abbreviations.

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Sample text

His major interest was foreign policy, and his greatest achievement as Chancellor was the series of agreements, known collectively as Ostpolitik, negotiated between the FRG and the states of Eastern Europe, as well as with the USSR. All sought to develop closer economic, political and humanitarian links between West Germany and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In reorientating West German foreign policy away from Westpolitik and the ‘policy of strength’ pursued by Konrad Adenauer and his successors, Brandt was concerned to emphasize that this in no way represented a diminution of the FRG’s commitment to the European Communities (EC) and to other Western organizations, such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

This was the standard means for financing international organizations such as the United Nations. The European Commission regarded the EC as being a different type of organization, however, and since the mid-1960s has sought access to its own revenue sources. In 1970 the original six Member States in the Treaty of Luxembourg decided that national contributions would be progressively phased out by 1975, to be replaced by a system of EC own resources, that is, funds that originate in the Member States but are the property of the EC.

The Smithsonian Agreement and the European Snake were efforts to salvage some advantage from the failure of the Bretton Woods agreement since, despite the benefits that floating currencies may have held for governments, the consequent currency fluctuations adversely affected international monetary stability. The European Monetary System (EMS) of 1979 was an attempt by the European Communities to stabilize currency fluctuations by introducing a modified exchange-rate system that would replicate what were believed to have been the virtues of Bretton Woods.

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